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  • AI
    Artificial Intelligence Artificial intelligence refers to the simulation of human intelligence in machines that are programmed to think like humans and mimic their actions.
  • AMR
    Adaptive Multi-Rate Adaptive Multi-Rate is the new speech codec for GSM and UMTS. There are two different versions of AMR.
  • API
    Application Programming Interface An application programming interface is a computing interface which defines interactions between multiple software intermediaries.
  • APIO
    API Orchestrator The Orchestrator API is an OData version 4.0 standard compliant REST API that exposes entities and their relationships using well defined access, navigation and modification rules.
  • AS
    Applications Server An application server is designed to install, operate and host applications and associated services for end users, IT services and organizations and facilitates the hosting and delivery of high-end consumer or business applications.
  • ASI
    Audio Streaming Integrity The Audio Streaming Integrity metric is an option to the Opale MultiDSLA test system. ASI detects, qualifies, records and logs breaks or distortions in audio continuity over any test period, providing a cumulative count plus the duration and timestamp of each anomaly.
  • ASR
    Answer Seizure Ratio The Answer-seizure Ratio is the percentage of telephone calls which are answered, a measure of network quality and call success rates in telecommunications.
  • ATA
    Analog Telephone Adapter An analog telephone adapter is a device for connecting traditional analog telephones, fax machines, and similar customer-premises devices to a digital telephone system or a voice over IP telephony network.
  • B2BUA
    Back-to-Back User Agent A back-to-back user agent is a logical network element in Session Initiation Protocol applications. SIP is a signaling protocol for managing multimedia Voice over Internet Protocol telephone calls.
  • BRI
    Basic Rate Interface Basic Rate Interface is used to cater to home and small enterprises.
  • BSS
    Business Support System BSS primarily consists of order capture, Customer Relationship Management and Telecommunications billing.
  • CA
    Certificate Authority In cryptography, a Certificate Authority, or Certification Authority, is an entity that issues digital certificates. A digital certificate certifies the ownership of a public key by the named subject of the certificate.
  • CC
    Contents of Communications Text and source of the message that needs to be delivered to the receiver
  • CDMA
    Code Division Multiple Access CDMA was a standard designed and patented by Qualcomm, but subsequently used as the basis for the CDMA2000 and WCDMA standards for 3G.
  • CDR
    Call Detail Record Call Detail Record is the detailed record of a telephonic call that pass through a telephone exchange or any other telecommunications equipment.
  • CFM
    Communication Fraud Monitor A component of the Oracle Communications Session Monitor suite, Fraud Monitor runs on the Aggregation Engine machine, but relies on the data provided by the Mediation Engines to detect fraud. This allows Fraud Monitor to be aware of the real-time state of all the(...)
  • CIDR
    Classless Inter-Domain Routing A method for allocating IP addresses and for IP routing.
  • CLI
    Command-line Interface A Command-line Interface is a text-based user interface used to interact with and manage computers and computer files. Also known as: Command-line User Interfaces, Console User Interfaces and Character User Interfaces.
  • COTS
    Commercial-of-the-Shelf A term for software products that are ready-made and available for purchase in the commercial market.
  • CPE
    Customer Provided Equipment It is any terminal and associated equipment located at a subscriber’s premises and connected with a carrier’s telecommunication circuit at the demarcation point.
  • CPU
    Central Processing Unit A CPU is the electronic circuitry within a computer that executes the primary instructions that make up a computer program. Often called: Central Processor, Main Processor or just Processor.
  • CSCF
    Call Session Control Function Several SIP servers or proxies, collectively called Call Session Control Function, are used to process SIP signaling packets in the IMS.
  • CSP
    Communications Service Provider Offers telecommunications services or some combination of information and media services, content, entertainment and application services over networks, leveraging the network infrastructure as a rich, functional platform.
  • DNS
    Domain Name System The Domain Name System is a hierarchical and decentralized naming system for computers, services, or other resources connected to the Internet or a private network. It associates various information with domain names assigned to each of the participating entities.
  • DoS
    Denial of Service A Denial of Service attack is an attack meant to shut down a machine or network, making it inaccessible to its intended users. DoS attacks accomplish this by flooding the target with traffic, or sending it information that triggers a crash.
  • DPI
    Deep Packet Inspection Deep packet inspection or packet sniffing is a type of data processing that inspects in detail the data being sent over a computer network, and usually takes action by blocking, re-routing, or logging it accordingly.
  • DSL
    Digital Subscriber Line DSL is a communications medium used to transfer digital signals over standard telephone lines
  • DSP
    Digital Signal Processing Digital signal processing refers to various techniques for improving the accuracy and reliability of digital communications.
  • DTMF
    DTMF Dual-tone multi-frequency signaling is a telecommunication signaling system using the voice-frequency band over telephone lines between telephone equipment and other communications devices and switching centers.
  • E-SBC
    Enterprise Session Border Controller E-SBC is a network element that provides security and interoperability between differing SIP-based networks, managing signaling and occasionally media transport.
  • E2E
    Exchange-to-Exchange On the Internet, E2E has been used to mean exchange-to-exchange — that is, the exchange of information or transactions between Web sites that themselves serve as exchanges or brokers for goods and services between businesses.
  • ECB
    Enterprise Communication Broker Oracle Enterprise Communications Broker is a core session manager purpose-built to simplify complex, multivendor, VoIP, and unified communications networks
  • ENUM
    E.164 Number to URI Mapping ENUM is an IETF standard (RFC 2916) for mapping the public telephone number address space into the Domain Name System
  • EOM
    Enterprise Operations Monitor The Enterprise variant of Oracle Communications Session Monitor, aka OCOM. This version is optimized for the specific needs of Enterprise communication environments.
  • ESXi
    VMware ESXi is an enterprise-class, type-1 hypervisor developed by VMware for deploying and serving virtual computers
  • FCC
    Federal Communications Commission The Federal Communications Commission is an independent agency of the United States government that regulates communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable across the United States.
  • FIPS
    Federal Information Processing Standards To be FIPS compliant means an organization adheres to the Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) in order to act in accordance with the Federal Information Security Management Act of 2002 (FISMA) and the Federal Information Security(...)
  • Gbps
    Gigabits per second Gbps stands for billions of bits per second and is a measure of bandwidth on a digital data transmission medium such as optical fiber
  • GPS
    Global Positioning System  Global navigation satellite system that provides location, velocity and time synchronization.
  • GRE
    Generic Routing Encapsulation Generic routing encapsulation (GRE) is a communication protocol used to establish a direct, point-to-point connection between network nodes. Use of multiple protocols over a single-protocol backbone. Providing workarounds for networks with limited hops
  • GUI
    Graphical User Interface The graphical user interface is a form of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through graphical icons and audio indicator such as primary notation, instead of text-based user interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation.
  • GW
    Gateway A gateway is a node (router) in a computer network, a key stopping point for data on its way to or from other networks.
  • HCS
    Hosted Collaboration Solution Cisco Hosted Collaboration Solution is a next-generation UC and collaboration platform for service providers who want to offer unique Cisco collaboration technologies using hosted and managed models.
  • HD
    High Definition High-definition video is video of higher resolution and quality than standard-definition. While there is no standardized meaning for high-definition, generally any video image with considerably more than 480 vertical scan lines (North America) or 576 vertical lines (Europe) is(...)
  • HPBX
    Hosted Private Branch Exchange Hosted PBX is a service where the call platform and PBX features are hosted at the service provider location.
  • HSS
    Home Subscriber Server The HSS (Home Subscriber Server) is the concatenation of the HLR (Home Location Register) and the AuC (Authentication Center).
  • HTML
    Hypertext Markup Language HTML is the standard markup language for documents designed to be displayed in a web browser. It can be assisted by technologies such as Cascading Style Sheets and scripting languages such as JavaScript.
  • IDS
    Intrusion Detection System An intrusion detection system is a device or software application that monitors a network or systems for malicious activity or policy violations.
  • IETF
    Internet Engineering Task Force An open standards organization, which develops and promotes voluntary Internet standards, in particular the standards that comprise the Internet protocol suite.
  • IFC
    Initial Filter Criteria The mechanism used by the IMS to invoke Application Servers.
  • IMS
    Information Management System One of two major legacy database and transaction management subsystems from IBM that run on mainframe MVS (now z/OS) systems.
  • IoT
    Internet of Things Refers to a system of interrelated, internet-connected objects that are able to collect and transfer data over a network without human intervention. The personal or business possibilities are endless.
  • IP
    Internet Protocol This protocol, like many others such as HTTP, TCP, UDP, etc., is responsible for establishing communications in most of our networks.
  • IP PBX
    Internet Protocol Private Branch Exchange A system that connects telephone extensions to the public switched telephone network (PSTN) and provides internal communication, typically for a business.
  • IPSec
    Internet Protocol Security A secure network protocol suite that authenticates and encrypts the packets of data to provide secure encrypted communication between two computers over an Internet Protocol network.
  • IPX
    Internetwork Packet Exchange A networking protocol originally used by the Novell NetWare operating system and later adopted by Windows.
  • IRI
    Intercept Related Information Known as intercept related information (IRI) in Europe and call data (CD) in the US, IRI consists of information about the targeted communications, including destination of a voice call (e.g., called party's telephone number), source of a call (caller's phone(...)
  • IRSF
    International Revenue Share Fraud One of the most menacing frauds plaguing the telecom industry. IRSF is caused by the artificial inflation of traffic or traffic pumping to the International premium rate numbers in the world.
  • ISDN
    Integrated Services Digital Network A set of communication standards for simultaneous digital transmission of voice, video, data, and other network services over the traditional circuits of the public switched telephone network.
  • ISP
    Internet Service Provider The industry term for the company that is able to provide you with access to the Internet, typically from a computer. If you hear someone talking about the Internet and they mention their "provider," they're usually talking about their ISP.
  • ISR
    Interactive Session Recorder Oracle Communications Interactive Session Recorder is a scalable and easy-to-deploy Internet Protocol (IP) communications session recording solution.
  • ISV
    Independent Software Vendor A tech industry term used by Microsoft and other companies to describe individuals and organizations who develop, market and sell software that runs on third-party software and hardware platforms, including Microsoft's.
  • IT
    Information Technology The department within a company that is charged with establishing, monitoring and maintaining information technology systems and services.
  • ITU-T
    International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Standardization Sector The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector coordinates standards for telecommunications and Information Communication Technology such as X.509 for cybersecurity, Y.3172 for machine learning, and H.264/MPEG-4(...)
  • IVR
    Interactive Voice Response A computerized phone system that enables a person, typically a telephone caller, to make a selection from a voice menu.
  • JITC
    Joint Interoperability Test Command A wing of the United States Department of Defense that tests and certifies information technology products for military use.
  • JSON
    JavaScript Object Notation A standard text-based format for representing structured data based on JavaScript object syntax.
  • KPI
    Key Performance Indicator A KPI is a quantifiable measurement, plotting the performance of a metric of interest over time. For example, an Active Calls KPI would graphically plot the volume of calls processed over time.
  • LAN
    Local Area Network A network of devices limited to a relatively small scope, such as a single building, typically with a gateway serving as an access point to a wider network.
  • LEA
    Law Enforcement Agency Within North America, any government agency responsible for the enforcement of the laws. Outside North America, such organizations are usually called police services.
  • LI
    Lawful Interception Facilities in telecommunications and telephone networks that allow law enforcement agencies with court orders or other legal authorization to selectively wiretap individual subscribers.
  • LOKI
    Lightframe Onsight Keyspecies Investigation Technology framework.
  • LTE
    Long Term Evolution The current dominant cellular transmission technology. Superseding 3G, LTE is a 4G technology that uses the GSM software infrastructure but different hardware interfaces.
  • MEC
    Mediation Engine Connector In the context of OCSM, a Mediation Engine Connector functions as an intermediary between two or more Mediation Engine servers, allowing them to cross-correlate and reference across each other.
  • MeGaCo
    Media Gateway Control A signaling and call control communications protocol used in voice over IP telecommunication systems.
  • MEGACO
    Media Gateway Control A signaling and call control communications protocol used in voice over IP telecommunication systems.
  • MIB
    Management Information Base A database used for managing the entities in a communication network. Most often associated with the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP), the term is also used more generically in contexts such as in OSI/ISO Network management model.
  • MM
    Multi-Mode Fiber Fiber optic interface, typically used within a data center environment or LAN environment (optical wavelength (lambda) 850 nm)
  • MOS
    Mean Opinion Score A measure used in the domain of Quality of Experience and telecommunications engineering, representing overall quality of a stimulus or system.
  • MPLS
    Multi-Protocol Label Switching A routing technique in telecommunications networks that directs data from one node to the next based on short path labels rather than long network addresses, thus avoiding complex lookups in a routing table and speeding traffic flows.
  • NFV
    Network Functions Virtualization A network architecture concept that uses the technologies of IT virtualization to virtualize entire classes of network node functions into building blocks that may connect, or chain together, to create communication services.
  • NG-WAN
    Next-Generation WAN Next-Generation WAN architectures allow network-wide services to be managed at the policy level. The policy is held centrally, with version control and audit capabilities, and automatically pushed to devices.
  • NOC
    Network Operations Center A network operations center, also known as a "network management center", is one or more locations from which network monitoring and control, or network management, is exercised over a computer, telecommunication or satellite network.
  • NTP
    Network Time Protocol An Internet protocol used to synchronize the clocks of computers to some time reference.
  • NUMA
    Non-Uniform Memory Access A computer memory design used in multiprocessing, where the memory access time depends on the memory location relative to the processor.
  • OCOM
    Oracle Communications Operations Monitor Formerly known as Palladion, this is a real-time, end-to- end service monitoring, troubleshooting and analytics solution that provides insight into VoIP and Unified Communications networks through a customizable and intuitive graphical user interface.
  • OMC
    Operation Maintenance Center An OMC is used to monitor and maintain the performance of each Mobile Station (MS), Base Station (BS), Base Station Controller (BSC) and Mobile Switching Center (MSC) within a GSM system.
  • OPEX
    Operating Expenses The day-to-day expenses a company incurs to keep their business operational.
  • OSS
    Operations System Support A software component that enables a service provider to monitor, control, analyze, and manage the services on its network.
  • OTT
    Over-the-top Media Streaming Refers to any streaming service that delivers content over the internet.
  • P-CSCF
    Proxy Call Session Control Function A Proxy-CSCF is a SIP proxy that is the first point of contact for the IMS terminal.
  • P2P
    Peer-to-peer A network of personal computers, each of which acts as both client and sever, so that each can exchange files and email directly with every other computer on the network.
  • PAM
    Privileged Access Management A segment of network security solutions that control and monitor internal employee privileged user activity. These tools address the vulnerabilities that are introduced when users with high-level permissions require access to critical systems.
  • PBX
    Private Branch Exchange A private telephone network used within a company or organization.
  • PCAP
    Packet Capture A standardized file format and API used to facilitate packet capture from a network.
  • PCI DSS
    Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard An information security standard for organizations that handle branded credit cards from the major card schemes.
  • PDD
    Post-Dial Delay In telecommunications, PDD is the measurement of how long it takes for the calling party to hear a ringback tone, after initiating a call.
  • PESQ
    Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality A family of standards comprising a test methodology for automated assessment of the speech quality as experienced by a user of a telephony system.
  • PIE
    Persistent Identification Element A method of individually tagging users' browsers for the purposes of identification and tracking.
  • PII
    Personally Identifiable Information Any data that can be used to identify a specific individual.
  • POLQA
    Perceptual Objective Listening Quality Analysis POLQA, also known as ITU-T Rec. P.863 is an ITU-T Standard that covers a model to predict speech quality by means of analyzing digital speech signals. Considered a successor to PESQ.
  • POTS
    Plain Old Telephone Service A reference to the voice-grade telephone service that remains the basic form of residential and small business service connection to the telephone network in most parts of the world.
  • PRI
    Primary Rate Interface A telecommunications interface standard used on an Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) link for carrying multiple DS0 voice and data transmissions between the network and a user.
  • PRS
    Personal Radio Service Any system that allows individual to operate radio transmitters and receivers for personal purposes with minimal or no special license or individual authorization.
  • PSTN
    Public Switched Telephone Network The aggregate of the world's circuit-switched telephone networks that are operated by national, regional, or local telephony operators, providing infrastructure and services for public telecommunication.
  • PTN
    Public Telecom Network This includes the landline networks of the local and long distance carriers, the cellular networks, and satellite service. Switches automatically establish and disconnect circuits between communicating parties on demand.
  • QoS
    Quality of Service Any technology that manages data traffic to reduce packet loss, latency and jitter on the network.
  • QPI
    Quick Path Interconnect A point-to-point processor interconnect developed by Intel which replaced the front-side bus in Xeon, Itanium, and certain desktop platforms starting in 2008.
  • QSIG
    Q Signaling An ISDN based signaling protocol for signaling between private branch exchanges in a private integrated services network.
  • RCS
    Rich Communication Services A new messaging protocol on Android devices. It's an alternative for SMS and more closely matches the features available in Apple's iMessage, WhatsApp, and Facebook Messenger.
  • REST
    Representational State Transfer REST is a software architectural style that defines a set of constraints to be used for creating Web services. Web services that conform to the REST architectural style, called RESTful Web services, provide interoperability between computer systems on the internet.
  • RFE
    Request for Enhancement Requests for new features and enhancements not currently offered in a product.
  • ROI
    Return on Investment A ratio between net profit (over a period) and cost of investment (resulting from an investment of some resources at a point in time).
  • RPC
    Remote Procedure Call In distributed computing, a remote procedure call (RPC) is when a computer program causes a procedure (subroutine) to execute in a different address space (commonly on another computer on a shared network), which is coded as if it were a normal (local) procedure call,(...)
  • RTC
    Real-Time Clock A component of a computer used to track the current time.
  • RTP
    Real-time Transport Protocol A standard packet format for delivering audio and video over the Internet.
  • SaaS
    Software as a Service a delivery and licensing model in which software is accessed on the web via a subscription rather than installed on local computers.
  • SASE
    Secure Access Service Edge An enterprise network architecture that secures the edge for remote workers and branch offices and allows private and secure communications to public cloud as well as traditional HQ data centers.
  • SBC
    Session Border Controller A special-purpose device that protects and regulates IP communications flows. As the name implies, session border controllers are deployed at network borders to control IP communications sessions.
  • SCTP
    Stream Control Transport Protocol A transport-layer protocol that ensures reliable, in-sequence transport of data. SCTP provides multihoming support where one or both endpoints of a connection can consist of more than one IP address.
  • SDES
    Session Description Protocol Security Description SDES for Media Streams is a way to negotiate the key for Secure Real-time Transport Protocol.
  • SDN
    Software-Defined Networking An approach to network management that enables dynamic, programmatically efficient network configuration in order to improve network performance and monitoring, making it more like cloud computing than traditional network management
  • SD-WAN
    Software Defined Wide Area Network A virtual WAN architecture that allows enterprises to leverage any combination of transport services – including MPLS, LTE and broadband internet services – to securely connect users to applications.
  • SFP
    Small Form-Factor Pluggable A compact, hot-pluggable network interface module used for both telecommunication and data communications network interfaces is usually, used to achieve connection between a copper or fiber optic network interface. The form factor and electrical interface are(...)
  • SHAKEN
    Signature-based Handling of Asserted Information Using Tokens A suite of guidelines for public switched telephone networks that indicate how to deal with calls that have incorrect or missing STIR information.
  • SIP
    Session Initiation Protocol A signaling protocol used for initiating, maintaining, modifying and terminating real-time sessions that involve video, voice, messaging and other communications applications and services between two or more endpoints on IP networks.
  • SLA
    Service Level Agreement A formal commitment to a specific minimum level of service between a service provider and a client.
  • SLB
    Subscriber-aware Load Balancer Oracle Communications Subscriber-aware Load Balancer enables linear, non-disruptive scaling of capacity up to millions of subscribers from a single Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Internet Protocol (IP) address.
  • SM
    Single-Mode Fiber A fiber-optic interface, typically used for long-haul distances or WAN span environments (optical wavelength (lambda) 1350 nm).
  • SMP
    Symmetric Multiprocessing A computer hardware and software architecture where two or more identical processors are connected to a single, shared main memory, have full access to all input and output devices, and are controlled by a single operating system instance that treats all processors(...)
  • SMS
    Short Message Service A text messaging service component of most telephone, Internet, and mobile device systems. It uses standardized communication protocols to enable mobile devices to exchange short text messages.
  • SNMP
    Simple Network Management Protocol An Internet standard protocol for collecting and organizing information about managed devices on IP networks and for modifying that information to change device behavior.
  • SOA
    Service Oriented Architecture A style of software design where services are provided to the other components by application components, through a communication protocol over a network.
  • SPAN
    Switched Port Analyzer A feature, sometimes called port mirroring or port monitoring, that allows you to take a copy of network traffic as it passes through a network switch.
  • SQL
    Structured Query Language SQL is used to communicate with a database. According to ANSI (American National Standards Institute), it is the standard language for relational database management systems.
  • SR
    Session Router Session-based routing is a type of routing architecture that is application-centric and designed to route entire sessions instead of individual packets. Sessions are used in communication protocols to represent a temporary, two-way exchange of information between endpoints.
  • SRE
    Site Reliability Engineering A software engineering approach to IT operations. SRE teams use software as a tool to manage systems, solve problems, and automate operations tasks.
  • SRTP
    Secure Real-time Transport Protocol A profile for Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) intended to provide encryption, message authentication and integrity, and replay attack protection to the RTP data in both unicast and multicast applications.
  • SS7
    Signaling System 7 A set of protocols allowing public phone networks (those connecting together and comprising the PSTN) to exchange the information needed for passing calls and text messages between each other and to ensure correct billing.
  • SSR
    Session Smart Router The 128T Session Smart Router combines a service-centric, control plane and a session aware data plane to offer IP routing, feature-rich policy management, improved visibility and proactive analytics.
  • STIR
    Secure Telephony Identity Revisited A suite of protocols and procedures intended to combat caller ID spoofing on public telephone networks.
  • SVR
    Secure Vector Routing 128T has coined the term “secure vector routing” to describe how it routes packets. Secure vector routing combines session awareness, first-packet processing, and waypoints.
  • TAP
    Test Access Point An access point is a device that creates a wireless local area network, or WLAN, usually in an office or large building. An access point connects to a wired router, switch, or hub via an Ethernet cable, and projects a Wi-Fi signal to a designated area.
  • TCP
    Transmission Control Protocol One of the main protocols of the Internet protocol suite.
  • TDM
    Time-division Multiplexing A method of transmitting and receiving independent signals over a common signal path by means of synchronized switches at each end of the transmission line so that each signal appears on the line only a fraction of time in an alternating pattern
  • TDoS
    Telephony Denial of Service An attack which attempts to make a telephone system unavailable to the intended user(s) by preventing incoming and/or outgoing calls.
  • TLS
    Transport Layer Security A widely adopted security protocol designed to facilitate privacy and data security for communications over the Internet.
  • TQP
    Total Quality Process Continual process of detecting and reducing or eliminating errors in manufacturing, streamlining supply chain management, improving the customer experience, and ensuring that employees are up to speed with training.
  • UC
    Unified Communication Unified Communications is a business and marketing concept describing the integration of enterprise communication services such as instant messaging, presence information, voice, mobility features.
  • UCaaS
    Unified Communication as a Service A service model where providers deliver different telecom or communications software applications or services, generally over the global IP network.
  • uCPE
    Universal Customer Premise Equipment A general purpose platform that integrates compute, storage and networking on a commodity, off-the-shelf server, allowing it to provide network services (such as SD WAN, firewall etc.) as virtual functions to any site on a network.
  • UDP
    User Datagram Protocol A complement to TCP, UDP provides non-guaranteed, high performance network communication that facilitates the exchange of messages between computing devices in a network. Generally used when delivery reliability is less of a concern, but the application layer must then(...)
  • UI
    User Interface At the most basic level, the user interface (UI) is the series of screens, pages, and visual elements—like buttons and icons—that enable a person to interact with a product or service.
  • UMG
    Universal Media Gateway A gateway that offering connectivity to VOIP, GSM/3G/4G, T1/E1 PRI, and POTS networks on a single platform. It allows users to make and receive calls transparently on all networks.
  • UX
    User Experience
  • VAD
    Voice Activity Detector Also known as speech activity detection or speech detection, this is the detection of the presence or absence of human speech.

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